Re-examining the Big Bang

Time Before Time - the Big Bang

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Existing Theory

To go into detail on the existing theory and the variations, would take many large web-sites, let alone a simple site such as this, so those theories will be outlined rather than expounded.

Problems With Existing Theories

There are some real issues with this BB theory besides the issue of how and why did the singularity just appear, one of these problems is why some galaxies look younger than others.  Recently a team of Australian scientists have discovered a group of galaxies thought to have existed only in the distant past. The galaxies are very young looking, galaxies that look as they would have done 13 billion years ago.  So here is an inconsistency in the ages of spacial objects that would at the very least throw doubt on the categorical age of 13.7 billion years.

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One cosmologist Professor Sean Carroll [speaking at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in St Louis, Missouri, ] when commenting on the results of Nasa's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), which has been studying the CMB since its launch in 2001. says:

“Another big surprise about our universe comes from actual data from the WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) spacecraft which has been studying the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) the “echo” of the Big Bang.

“The WMAP snapshot of how the early universe looked shows it to be hot, dense and smooth [low entropy] over a wide region of space,” said Carroll. “We don’t understand why that is the case. That’s an even bigger surprise than the inventory problem. Our universe just doesn’t look natural.” Carroll said states of low-entropy are rare, plus of all the possible initial conditions that could have evolved into a universe like ours, the overwhelming majority have much higher entropy, not lower.

But the single most surprising phenomenon about the universe, said Carroll, is that things change. And it all happens in a consistent direction from past to future, throughout the universe.

“It’s called the arrow of time,” said Carroll. This arrow of time comes from the second law of thermodynamics, which invokes entropy. The law states that invariably, closed systems move from order to disorder over time. This law is fundamental to physics and astronomy.”

One of the big questions about the initial conditions of the universe is why did entropy start out so low? “And low entropy near the Big Bang is responsible for everything about the arrow of time” said Carroll. “Life and death, memory, the flow of time.” Events happen in order and can’t be reversed.

Another problem is the dark matter issue. Exactly what is the Universe mainly made? We know it is made up of something, as there is a fabric to space, and we have invented Dark Matter and Dark Energy to explain this.  However no one has isolated this dark matter, nor do we have any idea of what it consists. Nucleosynthesis calculations 'suggest' that the dark matter of the Universe  (if it exists at all) does not consist of ordinary matter - neutrons and protons.

So it goes on, to paraphrase that well known American statesman, 'we don't know what we don't know'.   There is so much that we don't know  that  whatever  theories  we construct, they are always based  upon unknowns and assumptions, and the following is no different.

Te Big Bang (BB)

According to the big bang idea, the universe is nearly 14 (13.7) billion years old; no, that is not correct, the BB is a theory that has been built around the measurements made by cosmologists and astronomers that dictate that age. In reality we do not really know what the age of the universe is, simply because we do not have the full picture; we do not know the extent of the universe.  Bible scholars estimate that the Earth was created just 6000 years ago, they calculate this by working out the linages of the people / generations listen in the Bible.  A method as fraught with problems as the BB, simply we cannot be sure that these genealogies are correct or exhaustive.  Most scientists work within what is known as 'The Standard Theory' that theory theorises that the universe sprang into being as a 'singularity', which is the first big problem we encounter.  A 'singularity' is just a name for a single events, which defy our current understanding of physics. another phrase we could is an 'Event Horizon'.  So science does not know what this 'singularity' was or where it came from.  However cosmologists 'think they might possibly exist inside black holes (if there is such a place as 'inside' black holes).  So the BB hypotheses that our universe had its origin as a super-dence, super-hot lump of matter or a hyper-super-dence, hyper-super-hot Single Particle.

Following this mysterious appearance of this singularity from who knows where it is believed that the matter inflated, like pouring water on dehydrated vegetables, and then expanded and cooled into the universe we have today.  We do know from observations and measurements that our universe continues to both expand and cool.  In essence this is the Big Bang Theory; other than the fact that it is illogical that something should just appear out of nowhere and then explode, it is a logical theory based upon sound science and observation.

One misconception of the BB theory is that the singularity appeared as some sort of firey ball in the middle of space.  If this had been so the universe would not have been able to expand because space itself would have prevented that from happening.  This is because space is not empty, there is actually a 'fabric' to space a fabric that can be bent and warped by large gravitational objects like black holes or white dwarfs (very dense stars that have collapsed on themselves).  We can observe stars changing position slightly as the starlight that is emitted by them is bent by gravity as it passes these gravity wells.  As we know that photons (light) travels in a straight line through space, it stands to reason that it is space that is bent rather than the starlight.  So, for this singularity to expand it requires that there was nothing there in the first place.  Now I agree that this is a difficult concept to both understand and accept, but that means NO space and NO time, nothing, a total void.  This the only conditions under which it would have been possible for the universe to expand.  According to Steven Hawking, George Ellis, and Roger Penrose “The singularity didn't appear in space; rather, space began inside of the singularity. Prior to the singularity, nothing existed, not space, time, matter, or energy – nothing.”  Of course this only makes the mystery deeper and reinforces the need to include God in theories about the origin of the universe, namely, how did something suddenly appear from nowhere in a void condition of nothingness?  This then is certainly not in opposition with what the Bible tells us, that the universe was created by His Word, speaking something into nothing.  There are other less well know theories but the BB is by far the most popular however.  Physicist Robert Gentry proposed an attractive alternative to the standard theory, an alternative which also accounts for the evidences, he chooses instead to base his model on Einstein's static-spacetime paradigm which he claims is the "genuine cosmic Rosetta.  Dr. Hannes Alfvén, Professor Geoffrey Burbidge, Dr. Halton Arp, and the renowned British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle, who is accredited with first coining the term "the Big Bang" all present alternative theories or refute the BB theory.

Paul Davies saysAugustine of Hippo, a Christian saint who lived in the fifth century. In those days before science, cosmology was a branch of theology, and the taunt came not from journalists, but from pagans: "What was God doing before he made the universe?" they asked. "Busy creating Hell for the likes of you!" was the standard reply.

But Augustine was more subtle. The world, he claimed, was made "not in time, but simultaneously with time." In other words, the origin of the universe-what we now call the big bang-was not simply the sudden appearance of matter in an eternally pre-existing void, but the coming into being of time itself. Time began with the cosmic origin. There was no "before," no endless ocean of time for a god, or a physical process, to wear itself out in infinite preparation.